Steering stem cells with magnets

Quinn Eastman

July 16, 2013

Magnets could be a tool for directing stem cells’ healing powers to treat conditions such as heart disease or vascular disease.

By feeding stem cells tiny particles made of magnetized iron oxide, scientists at Emory and Georgia Tech can then use magnets to attract the cells to a particular location in a mouse's body after intravenous injection.

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The type of cells used in the study, mesenchymal stem cells, are not embryonic stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can be readily obtained from adult tissues such as bone marrow or fat. They are capable of becoming bone, fat and cartilage cells, but not other types of cell such as muscle or brain. They secrete a variety of nourishing and anti-inflammatory factors, which could make them valuable tools for treating conditions such as cardiovascular disease or autoimmune disorders.

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Researchers create the inner ear from stem cells, opening potential for new treatments

July 10, 2013

Indiana University scientists have transformed mouse embryonic stem cells into key structures of the inner ear. The discovery provides new insights into the sensory organ's developmental process and sets the stage for laboratory models of disease, drug discovery and potential treatments for hearing loss and balance disorders.

A research team led by Eri Hashino, Ph.D., Ruth C. Holton Professor of Otolaryngology at Indiana University School of Medicine, reported that by using a three-dimensional cell culture method, they were able to coax stem cells to develop into inner-ear sensory epithelia—containing hair cells, supporting cells and neurons—that detect sound, head movements and gravity. The research was reportedly online Wednesday in the journal Nature.

Previous attempts to "grow" inner-ear hair cells in standard cell culture systems have worked poorly in part because necessary cues to develop hair bundles—a hallmark of sensory hair cells and a structure critically important for detecting auditory or vestibular signals—are lacking in the flat cell-culture dish. But, Dr. Hashino said, the team determined that the cells needed to be suspended as aggregates in a specialized culture medium, which provided an environment more like that found in the body during early development.

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Nanoparticles could power 'electronic skin' in the future

By Devin Coldewey

July 10, 2013

A new development in nanotechnology may enable "electronic skin" for robots and prosthetic limbs, offering sensitivity not just to pressure, but to humidity and temperature — and it's even flexible.

The new material is developed by chemical engineers at the Israel Institute of Technology, who found that a certain type of gold nanoparticle changed how it conducted electricity based on pressure.

These nanoparticles are only 5-8 nanometers in diameter, comprising a gold core and a spiky, protective outer layer. When sandwiched into a special film, the way that film is bent or pressed may cause the nanoparticles to spread out or bunch together, changing how well electricity passes between them.

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Inquisitiveness of Milwaukee native leads to a Nobel prize

By Mark Johnson of the Journal Sentinel Posted: Oct. 8, 2009

Many miles and years removed from the competitive dinner-table debates of his childhood in Milwaukee and Wauwatosa, Yale chemist Thomas A. Steitz awoke at 5:20 Wednesday morning to the sound of a ringing phone, long distance from Sweden.

Steitz, the caller said, had won the 2009 Nobel Prize in chemistry. One by one, members of the Nobel Committee then got on the phone to offer personal congratulations.

"They wanted to be sure I knew this was not a hoax," Steitz said in an interview with the Journal Sentinel. "Since I knew some of the members of the committee, I could recognize their voices."

Sharing the prize and the $1.4 million with Steitz, 69, were Venkatraman Ramakrishnan of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in England and Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. The three scientists were honored for fundamental work that revealed the structure and function of ribosomes, which transform our DNA into the proteins necessary for virtually every human action from breathing to thinking.

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